The astronomical observatory in the southern hemisphere of Europe

Sunday, January 27, 2013

The astronomical observatory in the southern hemisphere of Europe


Located in the high mountains of Atacama Desert, Chile, the European Space Research Organization in the southern hemisphere (European Southern Observatory - ESO) has developed a system of telescopes and observatories. 

european southern astronomical observatory

Atacama Desert is an ideal place for activities astronomical observations from the ground as it is situated away from the city and very high above sea level, and more than 350 cloudless days. ESO is an intergovernmental research organization with 15 members, founded in 1962. 

This organization started projects astronomical observations in the southern hemisphere since 1966 and continues to expand to this day. ESO's observatories include La Silla, where telescopes New Technology Telescope (NTT); Paranal, with the telescope Very Large Telescope (VLT); and Llano de Chajnantor APEX submillimeter telescope and the Atacama Large Millimeter / submillimeter Array (ALMA). ESO is currently building a large telescope is the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) with a diameter of 40 meters and will be completed later this year at the Cerro Armazones. The following pictures will tell us little about ESO's observatories in the southern hemisphere and some pictures of the universe collected in the past few years.

european southern astronomical observatory

When the full moon rises, the sun will be on the opposite side of the horizon. The Very Large Telescope (VLT) of ESO has "closed his eyes" after a long night of observations; operators telescopes and astronomers will go to sleep, while the technical staff and the natural literary work during the day will wake up to start the new day. Recent work will not stop at the most astronomical observatories operating in the world. ESO member Gordon Gillet celebrate the day by taking photographs at a distance of 14km, on the way to the mountain Cerro Armazones.

Chajnantor plateau landscape where large radio telescope system in the world named ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter / sub-millimeter Array - roughly translated: large measurement system most miilimet and shorter). This is one of the world-class scientific program and as a result of the cooperation of many countries include European Union the America, Candana, Japan, Taiwan, and the host country Chile. Only construction cost and hardware of the system has reached billions of dollars. The purpose of this project is to explore the most remote regions in space where humans can not reach, thus offering an explanation for the formation of our mysterious universe.

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A laser beam shot out from the telescope (VLT) Chilean glow in the night sky, its mission to help astronomers explore remote places in the universe.

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Color blended picture of the Helix Nebula (NGC 7293) was created from photos taken by the Wide Field Imager (WFI), an astronomical camera attached to the telescope Max-Planck Society / ESO 2.2 m wide at the La Silla observatory in Chile. The blue in the middle of the Helix nebula is due to the light-emitting molecular oxygen under the influence of the intense ultraviolet radiation in the center of the star hot 120,000 degrees C plus heat.

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Formed billions of years ago but is still glowing, globular cluster NGC 2257 is located outside the large Magellanic Cloud (Large Magellanic Cloud - LMC), a satellite galaxy of the Milky Way galaxy.

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The pan antenna system of the largest radio telescope ALMA world located in the Chajnantor plateau. Night sky shining explain why Chile is not just for scientists chose to ALMA, but also several other astronomical observatories. In the foreground is an ALMA antenna diameter of 12 m is to work, it will act as a giant telescope.

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ALMA correlator (ALMA correlation), one of the world's most powerful supercomputer to be installed to complete the Andes, northern Chile. Has more than 134 million supercomputer processor, speeds of 17 million billion calculations / second.

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Scientists working at the checkpoint signal radio astronomy project ALMA, at Chajnantor plateau, Atacama Desert, Chile, October 1st, 2011.

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One of the most famous spiral galaxy Messier 104, also known more as the "Sombrero" (kind of felt hat to) because of its special shape. It is located in the direction of the constellation Virgo (Virgo), at a distance of 30 million light-years.
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Color composite images of the Horsehead Nebula (Horsehead) and the area around it. This photo was assembled from three different images taken with FORS2 system of telescope diameter KUEYEN 8.2 m in Paranal, 01/02/2000.

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Photos taken with the VLT survey telescope system Surver Telescope (VST) shows the interaction between the galaxies of young Hercules cluster of galaxies.

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Location for the astronomers of the European Southern Observatory (Observatory European Southern Hemisphere) in Cerro Paranal Observatory, taken on 15/09/2008. The house is built lower to the ground to minimize environmental impact and avoid the artificial light source "pollution" in the night sky. It is also the one which has been used for the James Bond film "Quantum of Solace" in 2008.

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Swimming pool inside the house for the ESO astronomers at the Cerro Paranal Observatory, taken September 15th, 2008.

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Snapshot ALMA telescope system in the building process. ALMA consists of 66 antenna system, which has a main antenna consists of 50 12m diameter, can span distances from 150m to 16km. In addition to the main sequence, there is a small range, with 4 antenna 12m and 12 antennas 7m. By using interferometry techniques, ALMA will become a giant telescope, allowing astronomers to observe the universe with unprecedented sensitivity and resolution.

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Spanish Prince Felipe and wife Princess Letizia visit to ESO's Paranal Observatory in Cerro Paranal, November 24th, 2011.

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KMOS spectrometer is being tested in the UK astronomical center in Edinburgh, before it was moved to Chile to become a device of the Very Large Telescope (VLT). In the picture can be seen 24 robot arm.

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The tail of comet McNaught create a special image on the VLT telescope system, 01/2007.

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The radio astronomy antennas of the ALMA project, on the Chajnantor plateau, October 1st, 2011.

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Large mirror diameter of 8.2 m Antu telescope, the system of ESO's Very Large telescope cleaned with CO2 bubbles. The small CO2 bubbles with a temperature of minus 80 degrees C, when they touch the glass, which is kept at room temperature, creating tiny explosions to separate dust from the surface of the glass. Dust will then fly away, and the glass will become clean.

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Color composite images of the galaxy Centaurus A that the lobes and jet stream radiation emitted from the black hole at the galaxy's center. Centaurus A (also known as Centaurus A or NGC 5128) is the lens galaxy about 11 million light years from Earth in the constellation Centaurus. It is one of the radio galaxy closest to the Earth, and its activities were the astronomers carefully studied. This galaxy is also a 5th celestial light in the sky, making it an ideal object of amateur astronomers, although only visible from the northern hemisphere at low latitudes and the southern hemisphere.

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The system used ALMA Observatory have discovered a helical structure in the material of old stars R Sculptoris. The observed red giant stars R Sculptoris important to astronomers because the first time they see a rising star in the period of old age surrounded by a halo of gas spiral shape, while the halo gas radiation which other stars are spherical. Explaining the cause of the deformation structure of the air, the team said that it was due to gravitational effects when it interacts with a star orbiting R Sculptoris. Thus, R Sculptoris only one star in the binary system like many other pairs of stars ever discovered.

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Blended picture color the visible and near-infrared regions of the dark nebula Barnard 68. This image obtained by the VLT Antu telescope diameter of 8.2 m and multi-mode FORS1 equipment in 03/1999.

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The barren Atacama Desert in northern Chile, ideal for observatories.

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In the Andes Mountains, Chile, 5,000 meters high above sea level, one of the giant transport vehicle antennas of the ALMA telescope system stops between an unexpected sight - a thin layer of snow covered Chajnantor plateau, one of the world's driest places.

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The star markings on the 3.6 m diameter telescope of ESO, the HARPS content, high-precision telescope and is a device for finding the world's first new planet.

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Image-forming region 30 Doradus, also known as the Tarantula Nebula. At its core survival characteristics cluster R136 (approximately 35 light-years in diameter) provide most of the energy that the nebula can be seen. Block luongh estimates of this cluster than 450,000 solar masses, suggesting that they are likely to become globular clusters in the future. This infrared image was created by ESO's VISTA survey telescope.

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Spiral galaxy NGC 1365 is a great period between the island universe, 200,000 light-years wide and is located about 60 million light years from Earth towards the constellation of Fornax (Fornax), NGC 1365 occupies positions direction of the Fornax cluster of galaxies. This image was created by combining the observations made through three different filters with the Danish 1.5 m diameter telescope at ESO, Chile, September 22nd, 2010.

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Installation work is being carried out on one of the 12m diameter radio telescope of ESO in the Atacama Desert, Chile.

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As soon as the sun begins to set on the Atacama Desert of Chile, ESO's VLT telescope immediately collects light from far away in the universe. Many photonic obtained moved billions of years through space before coming to a mirror of the telescope.

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Messier 78 celestial images obtained using the Wide Field Imager camera on the telescope MPG / ESO 2.2 m diameter at the La Silla Observatory, Chile.

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This image shows a dark nebula where stars are formed with a cluster of stars. This dark nebula called Lupus 3 and it is located about 600 light years from earth in the constellation Scorpius.

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Aerial photo shows the beautiful Atacama Desert around the ESO Paranal Observatory, where the system of large radio telescopes in the world are active day and night so that scientists can better understand the Universe head.

Source: The Atlantic